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Advice from librarians

Key considerations for conducting reviews

developed by Robin Parker & Lindsey Sikora

The PIECES framework proposed by Foster and Jewell (2017) is a useful tool to guide a researcher through the overarching phases of a review.

The PIECES acronym stands for:

Planning the review

Identifying studies

Evaluating and appraising the evidence

Collecting and combining data;

Explaining the synthesis;

Summarizing the findings.

Click below to check out the publication in the Journal of Graduate Medical Education (JGME) to put the PIECES together.

Author Spotlight



Robin Parker is the Evidence Synthesis Librarian for Dalhousie Libraries in Nova Scotia, Canada where she also supports research and learning for Dalhousie University’s Faculty of Medicine. Robin is an Interdisciplinary PhD candidate at Dalhousie and is researching how academic librarians teach evidence synthesis methods to learners in health and medicine programs. Robin has supported hundreds of review projects and is co-author on over a dozen published systematic and scoping reviews.

Lindsey headshot 2019.jpg


Lindsey Sikora is the Head for Health Sciences, Medicine, Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (HMSTEM) at the University of Ottawa Library in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. She obtained her Masters of Information Studies from the University of Toronto, in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and her Bachelors of Science (Hons.) in Behavioural Neuroscience from Laurentian University in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. She is currently a PhD candidate at the University of Ottawa, Faculty of Education, in the Health Professions Education stream. Lindsey has vast experience working collaboratively with many research groups on knowledge synthesis within the areas of medicine, health sciences, education and librarianship.

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